The ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish. All reptiles have an ilium except snakes, although some snake species have a tiny bone which is considered to be an ilium.

The name comes from the Latin, meaning "groin" or "flank."

The ilium of the human is divisible into two parts, the body and the ala; the separation is indicated on the top surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum.